A straight line that goes through the nuclei of two bonding atoms
When atoms overlap ON the internuclear axis
Creates a sausage shape between the atom circles
For p-orbitals, the phases/colors HAVE to be the same.
ALL single covalent bonds ARE sigma bonds
Two “s” orbitals overlap
One “p” orbital lobe overlaps with one “s” orbital
Two “p” orbital lobes overlapping
One sigma bond
One sigma bond AND one pi bond
One sigma bond AND two pi bonds
When atoms overlap PERPENDICULAR to the internuclear axis, side by side.
They create a NODE
The overlap is LESS than sigma bonds, so they are WEAKER.
They happen AFTER the first sigma bond, never before.