(x, y): Normal rectangular Coordinates/points
(r, a): Polar Coordinates/points
“r” = Distance from origin / modulus / radial coordinate
“α” = Angle / argument / angular coordinate

Polar Coordinates AREN’T UNIQUE:
Multiple angles can represent the same “ray” of point, like 0 and 360, 720, etc.
(r, a) is the same as (r, a+2*pi*n)
ALSO:
Reflection Points
(r, a) = (-r, a + pi) = (-r, a)

Conversion Equations:

Polar equation inputs and outputs:
In a polar function “a” is the input and “r” is the output

The closest point to the origin:
PO = (d, a)
Where the “d” is the distance to the line, and “a” is the angle
How to find it:
Cos(a – 2) = d/r
R = d*Sec(a – 2)

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