DNA stability:
The more hydrogen bonds, the higher stability.
This means that more C-G’s are better than A-T’s because C-G’s have one more hydrogen bond.
A-T’s have 2 hydrogen bonds
C-G’s have 3 hydrogen bonds

The Sugar-Phosphate Backbone: The covalent bond between the sugar group and the phosphate group.

Nucleic Acids:
Polymers make up DNA, and they are made up of nucleotides.
Example: DNA and RNA

Nucleotides:
Nitrogen Bases
DNA and RNA differ in sugar and change in Thymine and Uracil

DNA stands for deoxyribo-nucleic acid
Deoxyribo: deoxyribose / Sugar
Nucleic: DNA is found in the nucleus
Acid: It actually loses a hydrogen atom which is why it’s made up of phosphate, which is negative.

The four bases:
Thymine(T) and Adenine(A), Thymine is radioactive
Cytosine(C) and Guanine(G)

Uracil(U): Replaces Thymine(T) in RNA

The human genome:
We have about 6 billion base-pairs
Spread over 46 chromosomes AKA 23 chromosome pairs
NOT all chromosomes are equally long
The radius of a DNA molecule is about 1 nanometer

Gene:
A section of some DNA that is used for coding a certain kind of protein
There can be MULTIPLE on a single DNA strand

RNA (Ribonucleic acid):
Is a single-stranded chain, with Uracil that is made up of ribose instead of deoxyribose

Messenger-RNA: mRNA, a template for new DNA.

Transport-RNA: tRNA, moved aminoacids over to the ribosome and mRNA.

Ribosomal-RNA: rRNA, får translationen til at foregå korrekt

Small Nuclear-RNA: snRNA, is ONLY found in the nucleus helping splitting introns

5′ (5 prime): refers to an unbound phosphate group

3′ (3 prime): refers to an unbound hydroxyl group