Momentum = Quantity of Motion

Linear Momentum:
It is translational motion, as there is no rotation
It is mass * velocity

Momentum defined by Newton:
When you turn p into m*v then you’ll get m*a

Impulse:
The change in momentum, which can also be defined with Newtons laws

Elastic Collision:
When two objects collide and they DON’T stick together.
Both Momentum and Kinetic Energy are conserved, which leads to the following equations.

Inelastic Collision:
When two objects collide and they DO stick together.
Only Momentum is conserved, which leads to the following equation.