MEIOSIS 1: (8 Million possibilities)

Interphase:
The cell is just living its life

Prophase:
The nucleus opens up
The chromosomes from the dad and the mom move together and mix and match

Metaphase:
The centrosomes and microtubules split apart the chromosomes

Anaphase:
The chromosomes start to be split apart, but the chromatids aren’t separated.
It is the whole chromosomes that are being moved apart.

Telophase:
The chromosomes start to fold out / Unravel into their chromatin state.
The nucleus starts to form.
The microtubules dissolve.

MEIOSIS 2:
Basically just mitosis.

Interphase 2:
Usually doesn’t happen, but does exist in some species.

Prophase 2:
The chromosomes are created.
The nucleus membrane is DESTROYED.

Metaphase 2:
The chromosomes are lining up in the middle of the cell.
The centrosomes are on OPPOSIDE sides of the cell.
The Centrosomes push away and pull a chromatid to each of them, AKA they pull the chromosomes apart.

Anaphase 2:
The chromatids are being pulled apart into FOUR separate chromosomes.

Telophase 2:
The chromosomes start to unwind and nuclear membranes are being created.

Meiosis: the chromosome count is halved 0.5x

Mitosis: the chromosome count is doubled 2x

This happens in Germ Cells which are located in the gonad’s

The big difference between meiosis and mitosis:
Chromosomes touch each other in synapsis but form a tetrad (bivalent) bond.

Crossing over happens after that, where genes are exchanged so the new chromosomes are now weird

The metaphase plate: the middle of the cell

In Meiosis 2, the chromosomes DO NOT replicate, they just stay the same.

Cleavage Furrow:
The separation of cells after division.

The Law of Independent assortment:

The chromosomes align in the middle randomly in metaphase.
There are 2^n possibilities in this phase, so 2^23 for humans.
(This DOES NOT take crossing over into a count, which basically makes it infinity).

Crossing Over:
Apart from the law of independent assortment, which is that genes are recombined.