Physical properties:
What a thing looks like, smells like, its color, mass, size, melting point, etc.

Chemical properties:
Characteristics of how it can change its chemical structure or composition.
Ex.
Flammability, etc.

Substance:
A single pure form of matter like H2 or NaCl, and nothing else in it

Extensive Properties:
Properties that change when the size of an object changes, like volume, energy, and entropy

Intensive Properties:
Properties that DO NOT change when the size changes, like density and temperature

Phase Change: A material goes from one state of matter to another.
Ex.
Melting happens when a material goes from solid to liquid.

S: solid (Short distance between molecules)
L: liquid (Longer distance between molecules)
G: gas (Long distance between molecules)
?: plasma
Aq: aquaous (solution)

Mole:
6.0221 * 10^23 atoms/ions/molecules in 1 mole
NA
You can also use SI prefixes for moles

Equations between moles, mass, and molar mass:
m = Mass
n = Moles
M = Molar Mass

Chemical Amount: The formal way of saying how much there is of a certain substance.

Empirical Formula:
The ratio of elements in a molecule like CH2O for glucose AKA 1:2:1, even though the molecular formula says C6H12O6.

Mass Percentage Composition:
The elements mass divided by the TOTAL mass of the sample, to get how much of something is in the whole