Genes:
A small part of the DNA that codes for specific proteins, but can make multiple.
Something that codes for a trait.

Allele:
The form of the gene.
Ex.
The eye color gene can have different alleles, so one is blue and the other allele is brown.

Gametes:
Sex cells, AKA sperm, and eggs.
They are the only cells in the body with only 23 chromosomes

Karyotype:
A display of ALL of a person’s chromosomes.

Genotype: the Bb or BB’s in a Punnett square, so essentially the trait that is passed down.

Heterozygous:
When the two genes you get from your parents are DIFFERENT

Homozygous:
When the two genes you get are THE SAME

Dominance trait:
One trait dominates another, but not more common

Recessive trait:
The trait that loses over the dominant one

Phenotype:
The gene that is ACTUALLY expressed/represented on the person.

Autosomal:
Chromosomes that are boring, are all similar

Sex-determining Chromosome the 23rd:
The X and Y chromosomes
XY = Man
XX = Woman

The X and Y genes are NOT just for gender:
Blindness and Hemophilia are both caused by a mutation in the X chromosome
Hemophilia is recessive so BOTH X chromosomes have to be mutated for women, but for a man, there is a higher chance.

Unlinked genes:
Far apart genes, that are very unlikely to both be passed down together.

Linked genes:
Close together genes, where the likelihood of them being passed down together is very high

Recombination frequency:
The likely crossing over occurs

Linkage Map:
Shows the order and relative distance of genes on a chromosomes
Not exact distances, but just relative distance and assortment direction.

Pedigree:
Used to trace an inherited or genetic trait in a family.

The environment decides what genes/alleles are desirable.

Aneuploidy:
A cell has an extra or is missing a chromosome.
This happens because of something called nondisjunction.

Monosomic (2n -1):
A zygote with a missing chromosome.

Trisomic (2n + 1):
A zygote with an extra chromosome.

Nondisjunction:
The cell’s chromosomes do not get split in half, but rather stay together, which is not good.
Happens in both anaphases.
Ex. Down syndrome and polyploidy (having an extra chromosome)

Phenotypic plasticity:
The fact that phenotypes can change/molded/shaped very easily.
Ex. A wolf that can grow white hair, when in a snowy environment.

Genomic imprinting on Mitochondria and chloroplast inheritance:
Mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA is ONLY inherited from the mother, in animals AND plants.
When a sperm cell hits an egg, the mitochondria self-destruct.

Pleiotropy:
ONE gene affects MULTIPLE traits.
Ex. Albino people or people with weird blood cell structures.
Albino in TYR gene, which affects hair, eyes, skin color, and so many other things.
AKA there are multiple symptoms of certain things.

Blood Type:
Decided by the antigens on your red blood cells.
AB: Universal receiver, you can get everything
O: You can ONLY get from other O’s, but you can give to EVERYONE
ia and ib are an example of codominance.

RH Factor (+ OR -):
The positive or negative protein on a blood cell.
It is either there OR not.