There are many ways that some of your genes can be changed, and there are 3 main mutations:
One Nucleotide has changed from one to another, Ex. C turned into G
Extra nucleotides are added to the sequences.
A nucleotide has been removed
Frame Shift Mutations:
Insertion and Deletion both cause the entire sequence to shift in either direction, as new amino acids form.
It will almost always change the entire sequence.
Stop Codon Exception:
A deletion or insertion at the end of the sequence could potentially not have an effect, because there are multiple stop codons, however, it is very unlikely.
A group of genes that cause normal cells to become cancerous when they are mutated.
Tumor suppressor genes are normal genes that slow down cell division, repair DNA mistakes, or tell cells when to die.
A mutation happens when ONE nucleic acid is changed.
There are NONE added or removed, they are just CHANGED
Silent: The mutation doesn’t change the protein outcome
Nonsense: The mutation turns the codon into a stop codon
Missense: The codon/protein is changed
ALL of your DNA that you are born with.
What genes are activated/turned on
Modification in gene expression, like operons
In Eukaryotic cells, operons are not present but there are TWO main gene expression modifications:
When the histone is tightly packed around the DNA the genes are not accessible, but when the histones open up genes can be activated.
When a methyl group or epigenetic factor tags DNA to activate or repress certain genes.
The process is NOT permanent, so it can be changed in different environments.
Methyl groups / Epigenetic Factor:
Can bind to a histone and either open them up OR fold them tight in.