Autotrophic: an organism that makes its OWN food, like a plant

Heterotroph: an organism that has to EAT other organisms to survive

A LOT of energy is lost, as it is not digested or it turns into heat.

A lost link:
If a link in the chain is lost, the last link will begin to take over the place, and eventually, there won’t be enough food back from the primary consumers and then not even the producers.

The higher the Bio-Diversity, the more STABLE the ecosystem. Even if a link is lost there is still plenty of food around.

The Decomposers:
Heterotrophs (dead organisms though)
They make the nutrients that EVERYTHING needs to survive

The direction of energy flow.

Metabolic Rate:
The amount of energy used over a specific amount of time.
Usually SMALLER organisms have HIGHER rates.

Use metabolism/food to generate heat.

Gets energy/heat from a tree or the sun.

The 10% Rule:
Every time an organism is eaten to about 10% of the energy is retained and the other 90% is lost to heat.

A group of ONE species, like a group of gazelles

TWO or more species living together
Cooperation, eating each other, etc. Doesn’t have to be symbiotic

A lot of different organisms, non-living things, etc. living in ONE place together
Non-living things are like soil, light, stones, etc.

General areas where every species have evolved similarly
Etc. wetlands, grasslands, cities, tundra, oceans, deserts, etc.

Everything that is used by anything that is alive, incl. the atmosphere

Living factors like predators or plants

Temperature, sunlight, moisture, etc.

Symbiotic Relationships:
Organisms live together PERMANENTLY

Commensalism (+/0):
The host doesn’t change, but the organism does

Mutualism (+/+):
Both the host and organism BOTH benefit.

Parasitism (+/-):
The host perils, and the organism benefits.

Predator-Prey interactions:
When one increases the other decreases.

Carnivore: an organism that eats other organisms

Omnivore: an organism that eats both organisms and plants

Herbivore: an organism that only eats plants

Detrivore: an organism that eats DEAD organisms and plants

You can see what type of how the digestive system looks (Digestive organs):

  1. A straight forward, relatively smooth is CARNIVORE, like humans
  2. A weird curly and clumpy and rough looking one is a HERBIVORE, like cows and elephants

Mechanical digestion:
The mouth – Teeth, and tongue
The stomach – Incl. muscles in the stomach
The esophagus – Peristalsis

The flow of energy:
The way of energy goes from the producers to the consumers, NOT the other way around.

R vs. K Selection Theory:
Quality v Quantity.
Some organisms will reproduce as much as possible
Some however will ONLY reproduce to fill their habitat up to their Carrying Capacity and then stay
Most species are in the MIDDLE

R selected species:
Want to reproduce a lot, as R is the maximum rate in Math (the funny)
Organisms make A LOT of babies
Usually small organisms like insects

K selected species:
Only make a few babies and K stands for Carrying Capacity in Math.
Usually large organisms like humans.

Limiting Factors:
Limits for growth.
Ex. Humans increased food production, medical advances, being clean, air conditioning, etc.
Carrying Capacity increases as more children are born to work.

Ecological Footprint:
How much space is needed and how many resources are needed for survival.
Are different around the world.