DNA helicase:
Disrupts the hydrogen bonding between the two strands of DNA and exposes the insides of the DNA helix, allowing for other enzymes to replicate or transcribe the single-stranded DNA. Opens the DNA up.

Keeps the unzipped part from tangling or being misshaped.

DNA Primer:
The start of the DNA that the polymerase uses as a start for replication,  and is removed after the DNA is done, and replaced with normal bases by the DNE polymerase.

Helps the helicase cutting the hydrogen bonds

Binds the two parts together.

Direction: It ALWAYS goes from 5′ to 3′, so the top is continuous, and the lower part is done in chunks.
Leading vs Lagging strands.

DNA Polymerase:
Is the thing that is actually copying the DNA.

DNA replication is semiconservative:
During the first round of replication, each original single strand pairs with a new complementary strand. The first-generation daughter cells each have DNA consisting of one original and one new strand. During replication, the single original strand will pair with a new strand. The other double-strand will consist of nonoriginal DNA.

DNA Transcription:
DNA is being copied onto an mRNA template.

Nucleotides present: A, U, C, G, Ribose, Phosphate. (NOT T)

RNA Polymerase + (Other factors/enzymes):
The enzyme that is crucial to creating Pre-mRNA.

Template strand:
The one 5′ –  3′ strand that is being transcribed into mRNA.
The DNA strand and the mRNA are antiparallel.

Coding strand:
Doesn’t really do anything other than go back into DNA after the process.

A special sequence that signals the start of a gene.

The Transcription Initiation Complex:
The combination of the RNA Polymerase and the other factors that cluster around a promoter.

A special sequence that tells the RNA Polymerase that the Pre-mRNA is DONE, and then it releases the Pre-mRNA into the nucleoplasm.

Intron: Not that important as spliceosomes cut them away

Exon: very important as they are your actual transcribes genes.

Methyl cap (GTP cap):
Helps the RNA get through the nuclear pores and attach to ribosomes.

The mRNA immediately gets its nucleotides removed when entering the cytoplasm.

Poly-A Tail:
Gives the mRNA more structure and prevents the actual important stuff from being destroyed.

DNA Translation:
mRNA is made into proteins in the ribosome

The pair of THREE(3), and each pair codes for ONE amino acid.
There are 64 possible codons for 20 amino acids.

3 pairs in tRNA AKA the things that are created/copied inside the ribosome.
They transport the amino acids together to create a protein.

AUG is the Start-Codon for all proteins in RNA
(Would be ATG in DNA)

Stop Codon:
When it hits the A site, then the termination/stop of translation happens, as the protein is finished.