DNA helicase:
Disrupts the hydrogen bonding between the two strands of DNA and exposes the insides of the DNA helix, allowing for other enzymes to replicate or transcribe the single-stranded DNA. Opens the DNA up.

Topoisomerase:
Keeps the unzipped part from tangling or being misshaped.

DNA Primer:
The start of the DNA that the polymerase uses as a start for replication,  and is removed after the DNA is done, and replaced with normal bases by the DNE polymerase.

Primase:
Helps the helicase cutting the hydrogen bonds

Ligase:
Binds the two parts together.

Direction: It ALWAYS goes from 5′ to 3′, so the top is continuous, and the lower part is done in chunks.
Leading vs Lagging strands.

DNA Polymerase:
Is the thing that is actually copying the DNA.

DNA replication is semiconservative:
During the first round of replication, each original single strand pairs with a new complementary strand. The first-generation daughter cells each have DNA consisting of one original and one new strand. During replication, the single original strand will pair with a new strand. The other double-strand will consist of nonoriginal DNA.

DNA Transcription:
DNA is being copied onto an mRNA template.

Nucleotides present: A, U, C, G, Ribose, Phosphate. (NOT T)

RNA Polymerase + (Other factors/enzymes):
The enzyme that is crucial to creating Pre-mRNA.

Template strand:
The one 5′ –  3′ strand that is being transcribed into mRNA.
The DNA strand and the mRNA are antiparallel.

Coding strand:
Doesn’t really do anything other than go back into DNA after the process.

Promoter:
A special sequence that signals the start of a gene.

The Transcription Initiation Complex:
The combination of the RNA Polymerase and the other factors that cluster around a promoter.

Terminator:
A special sequence that tells the RNA Polymerase that the Pre-mRNA is DONE, and then it releases the Pre-mRNA into the nucleoplasm.

Intron: Not that important as spliceosomes cut them away

Exon: very important as they are your actual transcribes genes.

Methyl cap (GTP cap):
Helps the RNA get through the nuclear pores and attach to ribosomes.

Exonucleases:
The mRNA immediately gets its nucleotides removed when entering the cytoplasm.

Poly-A Tail:
Gives the mRNA more structure and prevents the actual important stuff from being destroyed.

DNA Translation:
mRNA is made into proteins in the ribosome

Codon:
The pair of THREE(3), and each pair codes for ONE amino acid.
There are 64 possible codons for 20 amino acids.

Anticodon:
3 pairs in tRNA AKA the things that are created/copied inside the ribosome.
They transport the amino acids together to create a protein.

AUG is the Start-Codon for all proteins in RNA
(Would be ATG in DNA)

Stop Codon:
When it hits the A site, then the termination/stop of translation happens, as the protein is finished.