Electron Acceptor Molecules:

ATP is an energy-carrying molecule, which is the most widely used, but not the only one
Adenosine Triphosphate.

ATP is made from glucose, which itself is sometimes made from cellulose and starch.

How ATP is used with Enzymes:
ATP loses a phosphate ion, which releases a lot of energy, and then you get ADP, and energy is released in the form of energy AKA electrons.

Hydrolysis/Hydrolyzed:
A molecule is split apart and free energy is made available for the cell to do work.

Phosphorylation:
Putting the leftover phosphate back onto the ADP to create new ATP.

Aerobic: You require Oxygen to breathe
HUMANS ARE THIS KIND

Anaerobic:
You DON’T need Oxygen to live

Photosynthesis:
Convert electromagnetic (light) energy into chemical energy. This energy is used to keep the plant alive, sustain all creatures that rely on the plant for food and shelter.
Plants and photosynthetic algae are the sources of all oxygen on Earth.
Chlorophyll is necessary for this reaction.
This only happens with light, it does not work without light

Chlorophyll: absorbs the light used in the reaction.

Endergonic:
Uses energy, energy comes IN. (Photosynthesis)

Exergonic:
Creates energy, energy comes out. (Respiration)

Light Dependent Reaction:
Happens in the Thylakoids.
Starts here and then gives ADP and NADH to the Calvin Cycle.

Calvin Cycle:
Happens in the Stroma.

Carbon Fixation:
Inorganic Carbon binds with other molecules to create organic molecules

The entire process is self-efficient:
The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH and spits out ADP, NAPH, P, and Water, which is then recycled in Model 2.

The plant Mitochondria:
Photosynthesis does not produce enough energy by itself, and therefore needs the mitochondria to create the rest.

There are FOUR phases of Cellular Respiration:

  • Glycolysis  –>  Link Reaction  –>  Krebs Cycle  –>  Oxidative Phosphorylation

Glycolysis is in the Cytoplasm
Every other phase occurs in the Mitochondria
38 ATP is USUALLY made from ONE Glucose molecule.
Everything from the 3 first reactions ALL goes to the Electron Transport Chain to make the actual ATP.

Glycolysis:
It doesn’t need oxygen (anaerobic)
Creates about 2 ATP total

Krebs Cycle:
It requires oxygen (aerobic)
Creates about 2 ATP total
Pyruvate from Glycolysis is added with CoA, and the CO2 is oxidized away from the new Acetyl CoA.

Oxidative phosphorylation:
Made up of the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis.
All of the NADH and FADH2 that were produced in glycolysis, the link reaction, and the Krebs cycle are used to make ATP here.

Embedded protein channels: They transport H+ from the Matrix to the Intermembrane Space, and they are powered by the electrons (NOT ATP)

High potential energy electrons: They come from NADH and FADH2, which come from the other 3 processes.
They split from the Hydrogen, where an electron is released.

The Intermembrane Space is very acidic (Low PH)

At the end of the chain, Oxygen is the final electron acceptor, and then it becomes negative so it binds with the Hydrogen to create Water.

After the Electron Transport Chain, all of the H+ is then moved BACK into the matrix, which then gives the enzyme energy to add P to ADP.

It takes NO energy for the H+ to move from the Intermembrane space to the matrix, as they are moving along their gradient.

ATP Synthase: Creates ATP, by adding phosphor to ADP.

Cellular Respiration ALSO exists in NO oxygen environments.
Humans create LACTIC ACID in our muscles
Yeast and other cells create alcohol.