Pills can be used for drugs or supplements and billions are taken every year.
There are many different ways of making pills, they can be pressed or encapsulated.
The crucial difference between pressed and encapsulated pills is that pressed pills also need binders, to make the active ingredient stay together and create better flow, whereas encapsulated pills only really need the active ingredients and then the capsule.

Goal:

This article will show you how to make a pill from scratch and you can choose which ingredient you need.
I will be pressing a pill, so I will be using binders and my active ingredient will be Vitamin C made from red bell peppers.
I will be using Microcrystalline Cellulose as my binder and I would use Silicon Dioxide, but it’s a breathing hazard, and I would not recommend it, as it isn’t really needed, and only slightly improves the flow of the pill.

Background Info (Theory):

Microcrystalline Cellulose has great compressibility which makes it great for pressed pills.
It is also odorless, tasteless, and completely non-reactive, which again makes it perfect for pills.
It is relatively cheap and is made of wood, so it is also vegan, so it can be used for everyone.
Red bell peppers are one of the most Vitamin C rich foods, which makes them perfect for a Vitamin C supplement.

The Procedure:

Step 1 (Active Ingredient Extraction):

First, you need to get your active ingredient ready, and for Vitamin C in red bell peppers, cut the bell pepper in half and lay it on its side, and cut off the top (stem) and bottom.
Then slice them into pieces (1 cm thick or less) and do this with all the red bell peppers or other fruit/vegetable that you have.
Spread out the slices on a baking sheet and put them in the oven on low heat (around 150 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit) and every 30 minutes, check for dryness and rotate them.
They should be dry enough to become a fine powder when blended and this process can take a couple of hours.
Once the slices are dried, put them in a blender and blend on high until the peppers are reduced to a fine powder, you may consider chopping up the pieces first so they are easier to blend.
Then, determine the mass of the powder using the small scale and record for later.

Step 2 (Binder Mix):

Transfer your active ingredient powder into a bowl or other vessel that can be used for mixing.
Weight out a 1:1 ratio of microcrystalline cellulose to your Vitamin C powder or if you plan to use Silicon Dioxide weigh out a 50:48:2 ratio, where 48 is microcrystalline cellulose and 2 is silicon dioxide.
Transfer the microcrystalline cellulose (and silicon dioxide) to the bowl with the bell pepper powder and mix them together with a spoon until it is as homogenous as possible, without clumps.
Then get ready to go to the pill presser, by transferring the powder to a sealed storage container for easy transport.

Step 3 (Pill Presser):

Go to the pill press and pour enough powder into the indent to fill the press. Use the crank or lever to firmly press the powder into a pill.
Be sure to do this step very slowly, as if you do it too fast the pill will simply not stick together.
Repeat until you run out of powder or when you have your desired amount of pills.

Alternative Step:

If you do not wish to use a pill press as you might simply not have one at hand, then you can order capsules, and then simply just add the active ingredient powder that you made, as you won’t need any binders.
These capsules can be bought cheaply and they are usually made out of some kind of starch from vegetables, so they are also vegan.
Below is a demonstration of how a capsule works when you have swallowed it and released the active ingredient:

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