Agarose Gel Electrophoresis is a very important lab procedure that is used to measure and compare DNA, RNA, or protein sizes.
This data can be used to compare a DNA sample to DNA found in a criminal investigation, find out if a person has a specific genotype and many other things.

Goal:

In this article, I will show you how to perform an Agarose Gel Electrophoresis and view the results under UV.
I will be using DNA from a hair sample that has been through PCR so that I know that I have enough DNA.

Background Info (Theory):

A gel is made out of Agarose, which is a linear polysaccharide that makes for a great gel for macromolecules like DNA and RNA to move through.
A negative charge is created in the top end of the gel, where the sample is added and then a positive charge is in the other end.
The charge goes towards the end which moves the macromolecules, where bigger molecules will stay in the top, but smaller and smaller molecules will go towards the bottom.
This will create a “ladder” that can then be compared to other “ladders” of known samples.

The Procedure:

Step 1 (Gelification):

The first step is to make the gel, which can be done by making a 2:100 grams-to-mL solution of Aragose powder and water in a heat-resistant pot or glass.
Put the Aragose-water solution in the microwave for about 15-20 minutes until the powder is completely dissolved into the water.
After the Aragose-water solution is ready pour it into your gel box frame and let it sit for about 20-25 minutes.
Take out your sample and add about 5 microliters of EZViz Loading Dye, which will make it possible to see the results under UV light.

Step 2 (Buffering):

Pipet your entire sample tube into one of the wells in the gel and if you have a control then add that too in another well.
Then plug in your electrophoresis tank into a power supply and turn it on at 100V for about 45 minutes to an hour.
Depending on your electrophoresis tank you might be able to see the process happen in real-time, but more likely you’ll have to wait and then put the gel into a machine that takes pictures with UV light.

Result and Conclusion:

After an hour or so the process should be over and you have a complete gel. You can then use that gel for whatever experiment/diagnosis that you need.
Some electrophoresis tanks let you see the process in real-time, and if you don’t have that I have attached a video below that shows the process:

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